Atlas of Paediatric HIV Infection


Regina E. Oladokun, Rannakoe J. Lehloenya, Carol Hlela, Agozie Ubesie, Sherifa Katibi


Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection can affect multiple organs, including the skin. The skin is the largest and most visible organ in the body. Skin manifestations (dermatoses) of HIV infection are variable and many HIV-associated skin conditions are often more severe and associated with worse morbidity than in HIV uninfected persons.

Infections due to fungi, bacteria and viruses, as well as infestations are either more common or more severe in this population. These infections and infestations also tend to have atypical presentations, are usually more recurrent and less responsive to conventional therapy compared to healthy children. Some malignancies, particularly haematological, inflammatory and drug-associated dermatoses are also more common. Cutaneous manifestations of nutritional deficiencies are also commonly seen in HIV-infected children.

A correlation between skin disease and underlying immune suppression has been reported in several studies, making the diagnosis of skin disease a valuable tool in the prediction of HIV infection and staging thereof.

Further reading

  1. Calles NR, Evans D, Terlonge D. Pathophysiology of the human immunodeficiency virus. In: Baylor International Pediatric AIDS Initiative. HIV curriculum for the health professional. Baylor College of Medicine, Houston; 2006: 11-22.
  2. Carvalho VO, Marinoni LP, Martins LTF et al. Dermatologic alterations in children with AIDS and their relation to clinical-immunological categories and viral load. Ann Bra Dermatol. 2003; 78:6. 
  3. Wananukul S, Thisyakorn U. Mucocutaneous manifestations of HIV infection in 91 children born to HIV- Seropositive women. Ped Dermatol 1999; 16(5): 359-363.
  4. Katibi OS, Ogunbiyi AO, Oladokun RE et al. Mucocutaneous Disorders of Pediatric HIV in South West Nigeria: Surrogates for Immunologic and Virologic Indices. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. DOI: 10.1177/2325957413502540
  5. Wayne Grayson. Paediatric HIV-related skin diseases. Diagnostic Histopathology 2005; 15(5): 225-231